Raskolnikov shows symptoms of bipolar affective disorder. This is characterized by manic episodes followed by episodes of depression. In the manic state the individual is over confident, speaks rapidly of grandiose plans, and show increased levels of social interest. Raskolnikov is usually unsocial and reserved but at times begins to interact with people and engage in conversations.
He is usually unsocial: “He was so immersed in himself and has isolated himself so much from everyone that he was afraid…of anyone at all” (1)… “ He had decidedly with drawn from everyone, like a turtle into its shell, and even the face of the maid who had the task of serving him, and who peeked into his room occasionally, drove him into bile and convulsions” (28).
He begins speaking about grandiose plans and tells how he would’ve commited the murder of Alyona:
“‘This is what I should have done. I should have taken the money and jewels, I should have walked out of there and have gone straight to some deserted place with fences round it and scarcely anyone to be seen, some kitchen garden or place of that sort. I should have looked out beforehand some stone weighing a hundredweight or more which had been lying in the corner from the time the house was built. I would lift that stone — there would sure to be a hollow under it, and I would put the jewels and money in that hole. Then I'd roll the stone back so that it would look as before, would press it down with my foot and walk away. And for a year or two, three maybe, I would not touch it. And, well, they could search! There'd be no trace’” (164).
Even though Raskolnikov demonstrates symptoms of Anxiety and conversion somatoform disorders I believe his symptoms are most consistent with bipolar affective disorder.